The scientific name of saffron is Crocus sativus. 

Saffron is a scarce and expensive spice and therefore it is called red gold. Saffron is famous since it is used not only for treatment, but is also used in preparing all kinds of food.  

From all parts of saffron, only a part of it namely the stigma is carefully removed and dried away from direct sunlight. The stigmas of this flower are red and between 2 to 4 cm. The stigmas which are longer, thinner, and dark red are the best type of saffron which is called Negin. 

One feature of this plant is its flowering in autumn which takes between 3 to 4 weeks. 

To obtain one kilo of pure saffron two hundred and ten thousand flowers are needed. 

Saffron cultivation requires good and flexible soil, dry weather, warm days and cool nights, and also a location in height and Iran has all the qualities to harvest good saffron.